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These wheat varieties are durum wheats belonging to the botanical group Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum.
Durum wheat is a separate botanical group from spring and winter wheats (T. aestivum.) Durum wheat is characterized by spikes that are more compact than common wheat. Its heads are always awned. Mature awns are black or white depending on variety and environmental conditions.
Widely grown throughout the Middle East, the high protein grains of durum wheats are the hardest of the wheats. This means their gluten content is not readily available making durum wheats better suited for a pasta flour instead of a bread flour, hence the nickname "macaroni wheat."