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These cultivars are durum wheats belonging to the botanical group Triticum turgidum.ssp. durum.
Durum wheat is a separate botanical group from the common bread wheat (T. aestivum.) Durums are characterized by spikes that are more compact than those of the common wheat. Its heads are always awned. Mature awns are black or white depending on variety and environmental conditions. Durum cultivars are spring or fall planted depending on the cultivar.
Widely grown throughout the Middle East, the high protein grains of durum wheat is the hardest of the wheat classes. This means its gluten content is not readily available making a durum wheat cultivar better suited as a pasta flour instead of a bread flour, hence durum's nickname "macaroni wheat." Couscous is made from durum wheat, as are some Mediterranean flatbreads.
Durum wheat's spikes are very ornamental with their often black-tipped awns which is why durums are sold commonly for crafts as Black Tip Wheat.