These precursors to modern cereals are known as "covered wheats" because their grains do not thresh free from their sheaths.
Einkorn - Triticum monococcum
Emmer - Triticum.turgidum.dicoccon
Georgian Emmer - Triticum.turgidum.paleaocolchicum
Ispahan Emmer - Triticum ispahanicum
Wild Emmer - Triticum.turgidum.dicoccoides
Spelt - Triticum spelta aka dinkel (Germany) or farro (Italy)
Characteristics of covered Ancient Wheats:
- traditionally grown for pastas, high-fiber cereals, and livestock feed
- cultivation is similar to wheat
- greater winter hardiness than wheat
- longer maturity time than wheat
- excess nitrogen can cause lodging
Another species considered an ancient wheat Triticum sphaerococcum, commonly known as Dwarf Wheat, was the predominate crop in ancient Asian Indian cultures prior to the Green Revolution. Unlike its botanical cousins, its grains thresh free.